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Cambridge Proposal

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Released 13 August 2001


An International Open Letter

to all economics departments


“The Kansas City Proposal”


Economics needs fundamental reform – and now is the time for change.


This document comes out a meeting of 75 students, researchers and professors from twenty-two nations who gathered for a week of discussion on the state of economics and the economy at the University of Missouri - Kansas City (UMKC) this June 2001.  The discussion took place at the Second Biennial Summer School of the Association for Evolutionary Economics (AFEE), jointly sponsored by UMKC, AFEE and the Center for Full Employment and Price Stability.


The undersigned participants, all committed to the reform of our discipline, have developed the following open letter.  This letter follows statements from other groups who have similar concerns.  Both in agreement with and in support of the Post-Autistic Economics Movement and the Cambridge Proposal, we believe that economic theory, inhibited by its ahistorical approach and abstract formalist methodology, has provided only a limited understanding of the challenging complexity of economic behavior. The narrow methodological approach of economics hinders its ability to generate truly pragmatic and realistic policy prescriptions or to engage in productive dialogue with other social sciences.


All economics departments should reform economics education to include reflection on the methodological assumptions that underpin our discipline.  A responsible and effective economics is one that sees economic behavior in its wider contexts, and that encourages philosophical challenge and debate. Most immediately, the field of economic analysis must be expanded to encompass the following:


1. A broader conception of human behavior. The definition of economic man as an autonomous rational optimizer is too narrow and does not allow for the roles of other determinants such as instinct, habit formation and gender, class and other social factors in shaping the economic psychology of social agents.


2. Recognition of culture. Economic activities, like all social phenomena, are necessarily embedded in culture, which includes all kinds of social, political and moral value-systems and institutions. These profoundly shape and guide human behavior by imposing obligations, enabling and disabling particular choices, and creating social or communal identities, all of which may impact on economic behavior.


3. Consideration of history. Economic reality is dynamic rather than static – and as economists we must investigate how and why things change over time and space. Realistic economic inquiry should focus on process rather than simply on ends.


4. A new theory of knowledge. The positive-vs.-normative dichotomy which has traditionally been used in the social sciences is problematic.  The fact-value distinction can be transcended by the recognition that the investigator’s values are inescapably involved in scientific inquiry and in making scientific statements, whether consciously or not. This acknowledgement enables a more sophisticated assessment of knowledge claims.


5. Empirical grounding. More effort must be made to substantiate theoretical claims with empirical evidence.  The tendency to privilege theoretical tenets in the teaching of economics without reference to empirical observation cultivates doubt about the realism of such explanations.


6. Expanded methods. Procedures such as participant observation, case studies and discourse analysis should be recognized as legitimate means of acquiring and analyzing data alongside econometrics and formal modeling.  Observation of phenomena from different vantage points using various data-gathering techniques may offer new insights into phenomena and enhance our understanding of them.


7. Interdisciplinary dialogue. Economists should be aware of diverse schools of thought within economics, and should be aware of developments in other disciplines, particularly the social sciences.


Although strong in developing analytic thinking skills, the professional training of economists has tended to discourage economists from even debating – let alone accepting – the validity of these wider dimensions. Unlike other social sciences and humanities, there is little space for philosophical and methodological debate in the contemporary profession. Critically-minded students of economics seem to face an unhappy choice between abandoning their speculative interests in order to make professional progress, or abandoning economics altogether for disciplines more hospitable to reflection and innovation.


Ours is a world of global economic change, of inequality between and within societies, of threats to environmental integrity, of new concepts of property and entitlement, of evolving international legal frameworks and of risks of instability in international finance. In such a world we need an economics that is open-minded, analytically effective and morally responsible. It is only by engaging in sustained critical reflection, revising and expanding our sense of what we do and what we believe as economists that such an economics can emerge.



The following 321 people have signed the above proposal


The original 25 signatories:


Ricardo Aguado,  Universídad del País Vasco, Spain

Dr. Stephen Dunn,  Staffordshire University, UK

Dr. Eric R. Hake,  Eastern Illinois University, USA

Fadhel Kaboub,  University of Missouri - Kansas City, Tunisia

Nitasha Kaul,  University of Hull, UK, India

Peter Kimani,  University of Nairobi, Kenya

Meelis Kitsing,  London School of Economics, Estonia

Agim Kukeli,  Colorado State University, Albania

Joelle Leclaire,  University of Missouri - Kansas City, Canada

Áine Léime,  National University of Ireland - Galway, Ireland

Hui Liu,  University of Ottawa, China

Claudia Maya,  National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico

Dr. Andrew Mearman,  Wagner College, USA, UK

Jaime Augusto Torres Melo,  London School of Economics, Colombia

Vassilis Monastiriotis,  London School of Economics, Greece

Alfred Ng Yau Foo,  University of Missouri - Kansas City, Malaysia

José Alfredo Pureco Ornelas,  National Autonomous Uni. of Mexico, Mexico

Jairo J. Parada,  Penn State University, Colombia

Franziska M. Pircher,  University of Missouri - Kansas City, USA

David Pringle,  University of Ottawa, Canada

Dr. James F. Smith,  University of Vermont, USA

Pavlina R. Tcherneva,  Center for Full Employment and Price Stability, UMKC, USA

Ermanno Celeste Tortia,  University of Ferrara, Italy

Eric Tymoigne,  Université de Paris – Nord, France

Benton Wolverton,  University of Missouri - Kansas City, USA


Questions, comments and critiques may be directed to David Pringle ( or Áine Léime (



The following people have also signed the above proposal

Stephen A Marglin, Professor of Economics, Harvard University, USA

Alex Millmow, Lecturer in Economics, Charles Sturt University, Australia

Edward K. Ross, Australia

Abraham  Rotstein, Professor  of  Economics, University  of Toronto, Canada

Charles K. Wilber, Emeritus Professor of Economics, University of Notre Dame, USA

Prof. Mark Blaug, UK

S. Charusheela, Women's Studies, University of Hawaii, USA

Jacques Bouchoux, Prag sciences socials, Université Paris 1, France

Chen Chien-chung, Assistant Professor, Tunghai University, Taiwan

Dr. Carsten Herrmann-Pillath, Prof. of Macroeconomics, Witten/Herdecke Uni., Germany

Dirk Bezemer, Visiting Research Fellow, London University, UK

Alexandre Abreu,  ISEG/UTL student, Portugal

Frederick W. Weston III, Director of The Regulatory Assistance Project, Vermont, USA

Dr. George McCarthy, Economic Development Unit, Ford Foundation, USA

Bernard Chavance, Professor of Economics, University Paris 7, France

Jan Otto Andersson, Professor of Economics, Åbo Akademi University, Finland

Dr. Fernando Leiva, Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Uni. of  New York, USA

Dr. Karl Petrick, Senior Lecturer in Economics, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK

Ken Meek, South Africa

Dr. Steve Keen, Sr. Lecturer, Economics & Finance, Uni. of Western Sydney, Australia

Prof. Ana Maria Bianchi, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Fabrice Flipo, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.

Karen L Williams, USA

Steven A. Waller,  student at University of Missouri at Kansas City, USA

Michael Pierce McKeever, Sr. Economics Instructor, Vista Community College, USA

Prof. L. Randall Wray, Dept. of Economics, University of Missouri at Kansas City, USA

Julian Wells, Business School, The Open University, UK

Michael A. Bernstein, Prof. of History and Economics, Uni. of Calif. at San Diego, USA

Catherine Samary, Université Paris IX Dauphine, France

Ben Young, University of Missouri at Kansas City, USA

Steve Shuklian, Marshall University, USA

Dr. Steve Fleetwood, Dept of Behaviour in Organisations, Lancaster University, UK

Roland Hain, Germany

Dr. Daniel M. Berman, Canada

Dr. Volodymyr Ryaboshlyk, Institute of Reforms, Ukraine

Lonnie Golden, Associate Professor of Economics, Penn State University, USA
D. Narasimha Reddy, Professor of Economics, University Of Hyderabad, India
Christopher Brown, Arkansas State University, USA
David Laibman, Professor of Economics, CUNY Graduate School, New York, USA
Jonathan B. Wight, Associate Professor, Dept. of Economics, Uni. of Richmond, USA

Andrew Larkin, Professor of Economics, St Cloud State University, USA
David Harris, Dept. of Environmental Economics, Uni. of California, Berkeley, USA

Vincent CH Chua, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Stephen DeMeulenaere, Civic Education UNDP,  East Timor
Hugh Stretton, Fellow of Adelaide University and Balliol College, Oxford, Australia
Pat Stretton, Australia
Greg Cannon, student, University of Texas at El Paso, USA

Per Simonsson, Phd. candidate, Dept. of Economic History, Stockholm Uni., Sweden
Stefania Di Bono, Assistant professor, Dept. of Economics, University of Pisa, Italy
Luis Bellvís, Associated Professor, Facultad de Economía, Universitat de València, Spain

Antony W. Dnes, Professor and Associate Dean, University of Hertfordshire, UK

John Tyler, USA
Bernard Beaudreau, Professor of Economics, Université Laval, Canada

James G. Devine, Professor of Economics, Loyola Marymount University, USA

Cosimo Perrott, Italy

Jose Alberto Garibaldi, Instituto Autonomo de Mexico, Mexico
Parzival Copes, Emeritus Professor of Economics, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Fung-Yea Huang, Assistant Professor, National Taipei University, Taiwan
Dr. Eero Carroll, Research Associate, Swedish Institute for Social Research, Sweden

Sergio Parrinello, Italy

Prof. Eleuterio Prado, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Aymeric Pontvianne, ENS Ulm and Forum, University Paris X, France

Aaron Pacitti,  PhD economics student, American University, USA

Ron Morrison, New Economics Foundation., UK

Roger C. Elletson, Chancellor, Grand Teton University, USA

Dr. Brian Eggleston, Chair of Dept. of Economics, Augustana College , USA

Dr. Reinhold Hedtke, Prof. of Economics, Uni. of Education Weingarten, Germany

George M. Frankfurter, Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University, USA

Tony Fu-Lai Yu, Fellow, Dept. of Economics, Australian Defence Force Academy, Australia

Jonathan Love, Management Consultant , California, USA

Rick Wicks, Doctoral candidate, Dept. of Economics, Goteborg University, Sweden

James Angresano, Professor of Economics, Albertson College of Idaho, USA

Dr. Ardic Kaya, Faculty of Economics, Istanbul University, Turkey

Dr. Bruno Tinel, France

Tom Fugate, Finance Coordinator, USA

Dr. Ben Young, University ot Missouri at Kansas City, USA

Giovanni Mazzetti, Professor of Economics, University of Calabria, Italy

Kieran Crilly, CIT, Cork, Ireland

Dr  Aart Roukens de Lange, Dir. of South Africaln New Economics Foundation, South Africa

Alan Whykes, Australia

Thomas I. Ellis, USA

Ronald R. Griffith, University of California, Berkley, USA

Karenia Cordova Saez. Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venezuela

Paul Wilkins, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA

Ted Burczak, Associate Professor, Denison University, USA

Wladimir Andreff, Professor of Economics, University Paris 1, Sorbonne, France

Ayhan Tosuner, Development Bank of Turkey, Turkey

Brent Ranalli,  USA 

Prof. Dušan Mramor, Faculty of Economics, Uni.of Ljubljana, Slovenia

G.S. Chandy, Director of Interactive LogicWare Ltd. India

John Foxworthy, USA

Hwok-Aun Lee, Lecturer, Faculty of Economics, Uni.of Malaya, Malaysia

Carlos Lopez-Hollis, Middlebury College, Vermont, United States

Ludwig Van Den Hauwe, PhD student, The Netherlands

Dawn Maalerud, Canada

Tony Weekes, Visiting Lecturer, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland

G. C. Harcourt, Jesus College, Cambridge, UK

Marie Duggan, Assistant Professor of Economics, Keene State College, USA

Mario Seccareccia, Professor of Economics, University of Ottawa, Canada

João Estêvão, Department of Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

Emile Dopheide, Ass. Professor, Social Sciences Division, ITC, Netherlands

Ozgur Orhangazi, Graduate Student in Economics, Uni. of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA

Michel Vigezzi, Professor of economics, University of Grenoble (UPMF), France

Andrew Sayer, Prof. of Social Theory and Political Economy, Lancaster Uni., UK

Ariane Landier, Student, France

Slim Thabet, University of Amiens, Departement of Economics, France

Prof. Antonio Santamaura, Associaro di Economia Politica, Università di Palermo, Italy

Thomas Roca, Université Bretagne Sud-Vannes, France

Joseph Ricciardi, Associate Prof. Of Economics, Babson College, USA

Seok-Hyeon Kim, Ph. D. student, U. of Notre Dame, USA

Prof. Dr. Francesc La-Roca, Dept. d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat de Valencia, Spain

Tony Lawson, Faculty of Economics, Cambridge, UK

Philip Street, Australia

Hugo Radice, Sr. Lecturer in International Political Economy, University of Leeds, UK

Tae-Erk Kim, Ph-D student Economics University of Leeds  UK

Chiara F. Leon, Economics student,  La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy

William Kwesi Derban, The Nottingham Trent University UK, Ghana

Dolores Sala, Economics student, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Todd Tucker, Post-graduate student, Cambridge University, UK
Myron Gordon, Canada
Christopher Brown, Professor of Economics, Arkansas State University, USA
Mary C. King, Associate Professor and Chair of Econ. Dept. Portland State Uni. USA
Eugene P. Coyle, USA

Ramon Garcia Fernandez, Asso. Professor of Economics, Federal Univ. of Parana, Brazil

Diego Guerrero, Prof. of Economics, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
Karen L Williams, USA
Dr. Sigrun Caspary, ICCE, Faculty of Economics, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany

Peter Söderbaum, Professor of Economics, Mälardalens högskola, Sweden

Dr. Eugene P. Coyle, California, USA

Ekkehart Schlicht, Professor of Economics, University of Munich, Germany

Sheila Dow, Professor of Economics, University of Sterling, UK

William C. Schaniel, Professor of Economics, State University of West Georgia, USA

William Waller, Professor of Economics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, USA

Veniamin Sekora, National  Academy of Management, Ukraine

T. D. Stanley, Professor of Economics and Business, Hendrix College, USA
Iám Mikel Gomez Uranga, Prof. of Economics, Uni. of the Basque Country, Spain

Tom J. Kennedy, Ottawa, Canada

Jesper Jespersen, Professor of Economics, Roskilde University, Denmark

Robert Robillard, Économiste, Ministère de l'Emploi du Québec, Canada

Robert L. Vogel, USA

Yolanda Jubeto, Ass. Professor,  University of the Basque Country, Spain

Amy Miskowski, Alverno College, Milwaukee, USA

Dr. Claudio Ansorena, Professor, National University, Costa Rica

Wayne McMillan, NSW Treasury, Australia

Professor Clive L. Spash, Chair of Environmental & Rural Economics, Uni. of Aberdeen, UK

Erin Filey, Economics Student, University of Waterloo, Canada

Dr. Sohrab Ismail-Beigi, Dept. of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, USA
Diego Viana, Student, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil

Ilian Petkov Iliev, PhD student, Judge Institute of Management, Cambridge University, UK

Rashed Al Mahmud Titumir, Ass. Prof.  Economics, Bangladesh Open Uni.  Bangladesh
Altug Yalcintas, Research Assistant at the Economics Dept., Ankara University, Turkey

Michael Rosen, Economics Chair, Milwaukee Area Technical College, USA

Oscar C. Zegada, Professor of Economics, Universidad Mayor de San Simon, Bolivia

Reynold F. Nesiba, Associate Professor of Economics, Augustana College, USA

Emilio Jose Chaves, Independent Researcher in Alternative Economics, Colombia

Javier B. Loscos, Prof. of Applied Economics, Uni. Complutense – Madrid, Spain

Thanasis Maniatis, Centre of Planning and Economic Research, Athens, Greece

Mauricio Luperi, Economics student, São Paulo University, Brazil

Mario Gómez Olivares, Economic Department, Iseg/UTL Lisbon, Portugal

Geoffrey Lane Nicholls, UK

Fabrice Guilbaud, University of Nanterre (Paris X), France

Lisa B. Wilkins, Graduate Student, Environmental Studies, Longwood College, USA

Jyri Saar, Student, Estonian Business School, Estonia
Jane Alexander, Illinois Food Safety Coalition, USA
Lauren Ayers, California, USA

Philip Davis Loring, USA

Dr James Paterson, University of Sydney, Australia

Richard Weatherill, UK 

Dr. Mehmet Türkay, Associate Professor, Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey

Lori Whalen, Orange County Department of Education, California, US

Chris Isaac, MSc student, London School of Economics, UK

Jyri Saar, Student, Estonian Business School, Estonia

Dr. Elias Kikilias, Director General, National Labour Institute, Greece

Amanda McClain, Project Assistant, MFG Inc., USA

M. Honer-Orton, Rockville, Utah, USA

Jeremy Houssay, Student in Politics, Economics and Social Sciences, IEP, Paris, France

Sidney A. Saunders, Philosophy Faculty, Wayne State College, USA

Ann Ogle, Bryn Mawr College, USA
Matthew Clarke, Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University, Australia

Carl Riskin, Professor of Economics, Queens College, New York, USA

Nancy Dobson, writer, Maryland, USA

Yvonne Liu,  Economics and Anthropology,  Columbia University, USA

Nick Deschacht, Student in Economics, Free University of Brussels (VUB), Belgium

Prof. Rania Antonopoulos, New York University, USA

Hernán Kisluk, Economics student, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina

Ina D'Heere, Student, Free University Brussels (V.U.B.), Belgium

Eric Porcu, independent director, Belgium

Mohammad Maljoo, PhD student, Tehran University, Iran

Erol Balkan, Professor of Economics, Hamilton College, USA

John Lynch, Ohio State University, USA

Vojmir Franicevic, Professor of Economics, University of Zagreb, Hungary

Tony Rafferty, Phd Student, University of Nottingham, UK
Peter Lawrence Boatman, USA

Tony Rafferty, Phd Student, University of Nottingham, UK

Mike Parker, University of Western Ontario, Canada

Carlos Encinas Ferrer, Prof. of Economics, Universidad Iberoamericana, León, Mexico

Slim Thabet, Department of Economics, University of Amiens, France

Prof. Dr. Fritz Strack, Universität Würzburg, Germany

Dr. C. Nicholas Gomersall, Martin Luther University, USA

Ulf Christiansen, Former lecturer in Regional Economics, Uni.of Copenhagen, Denmark

Stephan Schoenefuss, Institute of Economics, University of Hanover, Germany

Luca Grauso, Political Sciences student, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Napoli, Italy

Prof. Dr. Heiner Duerr, Chair for Econ. and Social Geography, Ruhr-Uni. Bochum, Germany

Bruce C. Moritz, Economics student, University of Nebraska at Omaha, USA

Winfried Schwatlo, Chearman of FOCUS BAU AG, Germany

Dirk Heuck, Senior-Business-Consultant, Cologne, Germany

Jorge Buzaglo, Associate Professor, Dept. of Economics, Uni. of Göteborg, Sweden

Dr. Thomas Mavrodontis, Associate Professor of Tourism Economy, TEI, Greece

Joerg Hess, Federal Agency for Financial Services Regulation and Supervision, Germany

Thomas R. Michl, Professor of Economics, Colgate University, USA

Cathleen Whiting, Associate Professor of Economics, Willamette University, USA

Kevin Furey, Assistant Professor of Economics, Willamette University, USA

Prof. Wolfram Elsner, Department of Economics, University of Bremen, Germany

Professor Frederic S. Lee, Dept. of Economics, Uni. of Missouri-Kansas City, USA

Nilufer Cagatay, Department of Economics, University of Utah, USA

Robert Scott Gassler, Professor of Economics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

Luciano Veloso, Economic Analyst, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Brazil

Dr. Bruce R. McFarling, Lecturer in Economics, University of Newcastle, Australia

Richard E. Planck, M.S.M.E. Director, The Simmel Group, USA

Dr. Nevenka Cuckovic, Institute for International Relations, Croatia

David F. Ruccio, Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame, USA

Dr. Bruce Pietrykowski, Asso. Professor of Economics, Uni. of Michigan-Dearborn, USA

Wan Yu-ze, Postgraduate, Department of Sociology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Dr. Ulrich Thielemann, Institute for Business Ethics, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland

Mike Sullivan, USA

Prof. Dr. Bernd Senf, Berlin School of Economics, Germany
William Krehm, editor of Economic Reform, Canada 

Jean Luc de Meulemeester, Free University of Brussels, Belgium and Oxford University, UK
João Sarmento Ribeiro, Economics student, Faculdade de Economia do Porto, Portugal
Hamid R. Managhebi, PhD Student in University of Allameh Tabatabaei, Iran

Thomas Jankowski, Lecturer in Political Economy,  Michigan State University., USA

William Eric Richdale, Ecologist, Melbourne, Australia

Wendy Olsen, University of Manchester, UK

Clive Beed, formerly Senior Lecturer in Economics, University of Melbourne, Australia

Cara Beed, formerly Lecturer in Sociology, Australian Catholic University, Australia

Dr. Rimas Norvaisa, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius, Lithuania

Ebrahim Hosseini-Nasab, Professor of Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Dr. W.R. Needham, Dept. of Economics, University of Waterloo, Canada

So Chung PanB.S.Sc in Economics (CUHK), Hong Kong

Joshua J. Hermias, Economics major, Lehigh University, USA

Robin Le, student, University of Queensland, Australia

Mohamed Aslam,  Lecturer in Dept. of Applied Economics, Uni. of Malaya, Malaysia

Mikhail Sinioutine, Dept. of Economic Sociology, St-Petersburg State Uni., Russia

Pallop Angsupun, chief economist at Empirica Capital, USA

Eleonora Cutrini, PhD student in Economics, University of Ancona, Italy

Dirk Plaetevoet, Student in philosophy, University of Leuven, Belgium
David Fagelson, Dept. of  Justice, Law and Socity, American University, USA
David Yee, Economics Student, Simon Fraser University, Canada

Professor Jia, Genliang, Department of Economics, Nankai University, China

Trevor Moyle, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK.

Allen Cookson, Oxford, New Zealand

Prof. Jia Genliang, Department of Economics, Nankai University,China

Todd Myers, Instructor in Department of Political Economy, Grossmont College, USA 

Slavisa Tasic, Free Market Center, Serbia

Francisco Galera, Department of Economics, University of Navarra, Spain

Christopher J. Niggle, Professor of Economics, University of Redlands, U.S.A.

Prof. Jia Genliang, Dept. of Economics, Nankai University, China
Edwin Le HeronMaître de Conférences in Economics, Sciences Po - Bordeaux, France
Joseph D. Tessier, Graduate Student in Economics,
University of New Hampshire, USA
Tharsila de Medeiros, graduate student in economics, Federal Uni.of Minas Gerais, Brazil
Richard C. Collins, Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning, Uni. of Virginia, US

Alan Hutton, Division of Economics & Enterprise, Glasgow Caledonian Uni., UK

Chi-ang Lin, Asso. Prof. , Dept. of Public Finance, National Chengchi Uni. Taipei, Taiwan

Dr. Jan Schnellenbach, Faculty of Economics,  Philipps-University Marburg, Denmark

Manfred Max-Neef, Professor of Ecological Economics, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile

Keith Scott, student, Augsburg College, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Florian Hartmann ,student, University of Bielefeld, Germany

Raimondello Orsini, Assistant Professor of Economics, Bologna University, Italy

Eckhard Hein, Duesseldorf, Germany

Derrick K Gondwe, Gettysburg University, USA

Duncan Reilly, Adelaide, Australia

Manfred Max-Neef, Professor of Ecological Economics, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile

Prof. Allen J. ScottCenter for Globalization and Policy Research, UCLA, US.

David G. Wells,  author of Power and Economics: the Failure of Ideology.

Yorick Blumenfeld, writer/series editor of Prospects for Tomorrow, US & UK)

Sandye Gloria-Palermo, Professor of Economics, University of French West Indies

Patricia Reiter, student, University of Vienna, Austria

Vikrant Tyagi, PhD student in Finance at Cornell University, USA

Michael J. Radzicki, Prof. of Economics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA

Ian Steuart, Wits University, South Africa

Dr Brian Orr, retired engineer and civil servant, currently a political activist, UK

Jorge Ibarra-Consejo, Lecturer, Faculty of Economics, UNAM, México
Dr. Marzia Grassi, Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Uni. de Lisboa, Portugal

Sidqy LP. Suyitno, Indonesia Al-Azhar University, Indonesia

Gkafaridou Iliada, Student, University of Thessalia, Greece

John Laliotis, Grad. student, Technological Educational Inst. of Athens, Greece
Vassilis Tzortzis, Director of Studies, Hellenic Management Association, Greece

Duncan Wigan, University of Sussex, UK

Luis Brunstein, Professor Department of Economics, University of Memphis, USA

Robert Locke, USA

Mehdi Shirkosh, Student in economics, University of Western Sydney, Australia

Kuo Heng-Chia, Graduate Inst of Building and Planning, National Taiwan Uni., Taiwan

Wan-wen Chu, Research Fellow , ISSP, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

Ignacio José Miñambres García, Economics student, University of Granada, Spain

Gokmen Tarik Acar, Graduate Student in Economics, Istanbul University, Turkey
Vincent D.P. Cobb, Masters candidate, Brooklyn College, USA


321 names